CRBS Publications, Presentations and Adaptations

Other CRBS publications (incl. translations; in chronological order):

Grace, S.L., Evindar, A., Kung, T., Scholey, P., & Stewart, D.E. (2004). Automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation. Medical Care, 42(7), 661-669. July.
PDF of Article:

Grace, S.L., Shanmugasegaram, S., Gravely-Witte, S., Brual, J., Suskin, N., & Stewart, D.E. (2009). Barriers to cardiac rehabilitation: Does age make a difference? Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 29(3). May/June.

Grace, S.L., Gravely-Witte, S., Kayaniyil, S., Brual, J., Suskin, N., & Stewart, D.E. (2009). A multi-site examination of sex differences in cardiac rehabilitation barriers by participation status. Journal of Women's Health, 18(2), 209-216. February.

Ghisi, G.L.M., Santos, R.Z., Schveitzer, V., Barros, A.L., Recchialo, T.L., Oh, P., Benetti, M., & Grace, S.L. (2012). Desenvolvimento e validacao em portugues de Escala de Barreiras para Reabilitacao Cardiaca [Development and validation of a Portuguese version of the cardiac rehabilitation barriers scale]. Arq Bras Cardio, 98(4): 344-352. April.

Shanmugasegaram, S.*, Oh, P., Reid, R., McCumber, T. & Grace, S.L. (2013). Cardiac rehabilitation barriers by rurality and socioeconomic status: A cross-sectional study. International Journal for Equity in Health, 12(1): 72. August.

Ghisi, G.L.*, dos Santos, R.Z., Aranha, E.E., Nunes, A.D., Oh, P., Benetti, M., & Grace SL. (2013). Perceptions of barriers to cardiac rehabilitation use in Brazil. Vascular Health Risk Management; 9: 485-91. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S48213. Corresponding video abstract:

Mair, V., Breda, A.P., Nunes, M.E.B., de Matos, L.D.N.J. (2013). Evaluating compliance to a cardiac rehabilitation program in a private general hospital. einstein; 11(3):278-284.

Shanmugasegaram, S., Oh, P., Reid, R.D., McCumber, T., & Grace, S.L. (2013). A comparison of barriers to use of home- versus site-based cardiac rehabilitation. J Cardiopulmonary Rehabil Prev; 33(5):297-302.

Horwood, Hayley; Williams, Michael J. A.; Mandic, Sandra. (2015). Examining Motivations and Barriers for Attending Maintenance Community-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Using the Health-Belief Model. HEART LUNG AND CIRCULATION. Volume: 24. Issue: 10. Pages: 980-987.

Sanchez-Delgado JC, Jacome-Hortua A, Pinzon S, Angarita-Fonseca A. (2015). Validez de contenido de la escala de barreras para la rehabilitacion cardiaca [Content validity of the scale of barriers to cardiac rehabilitation]. Rev Univ Salud;17(2): 170-176. [spanish].

Sanchez-Delgado, JC.; Angarita-Fonseca, A.; Jacome Hortua, A.; Malaver-Vega, Y.; Schmalbach-Aponte, E.; & Diaz-Diaz, C. (2016). Barreras para la participacion en programas do rehabilitacion cardiac en pacientes sometidos a revascularizacion percutanea per enfermedad coronaria. Rev Colom Cardiol; 23(2): 141-147.

Baek, S., Park, H-W., Lee, Y., Grace, S.L., & Kim, W-S. (2017). Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation of the Korean-Language Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine;441(5): 858-867. October.

Al-Ashwal, N.A., Critchley, K., & Benjamin, K. (2017). Cardiac rehabilitation programs: An investigation into the reasons for non-attendance in Qatar. Innovations in Global Health Professions Education. vol 2.

Fatimah, N., Grace, S.L., Emaliyawati, E., & Somantri, I. (2017). Cardiac rehabilitation barriers in Indonesia. World NCD Congress. Chandigarh, India. November. International Journal of Non-Communicable Diseases; 2(5):S7.

Sánchez Delgado, J.C., Jácome Hortúa, A., Larios Martínez, B., Pinzón, S. & Angarita Fonseca, A. (2018). Confiabilidad de la escala de barreras para la rehabilitación cardiac [Reliability of the barriers scale for cardiac rehabilitation]. Rev Colomb Cardiol;25(1):84-91. [spanish].

Rouleau, C., King-Shier, K.M., Tomfohr-Madsen, L.M., Bacon, S., Aggarwal, S., Arena, R., Campbell, T.S. (2018). The evaluation of a brief motivational intervention to promote intention to participate in cardiac rehabilitation: A randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling; 101:1914-1923.

Im, H.W., Baek, S., Jee, S., Ahn, J.M., Park, M.W., & Kim, W.S. (2018). Barriers to outpatient hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation in Korean patients with acute coronary syndrome. Ann Rehabil Med; 42(1):154-165.

Williamson, T.M., Rouleau, C.R., Aggarwal, S.G., Arena, R., & Campbell, T.S. (2018). Bridging the intention-behavior gap for cardiac rehabilitation participation: the role of perceived barriers. Disabil & Rehabil. DOI:

Qiu, X., Qiu, C., Wang, Y., Gao, M. (2018). Reliability and validity of Chinese version of Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale. Acad J Chin PLA Med Sch, 39 (12):1067-1071. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-5227.2018.12.011.

Grover, D., & Alexander, J. (2019). Patient attitudes towards telemedicine-delivered cardiac rehabilitation. Rehabil Nurs; 44(6):358-363.

Giannoccaro, J.D., Aggarwal, S., Grace, S.L., Campbell, T.S., Hauer, T., Arena, R., & Rouleau, C. (2020). Factors associated with attendance at a 1-yr post–cardiac rehabilitation risk factor check. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention;40:E22-25.

Bakhshayeh, S., Sarbaz, M., Kimiafar, K., Vakilian, F., & Eslami, S. (2021). Barriers to participation in center-based cardiac rehabilitation programs and patients' attitudes toward home-based cardiac rehabilitation programs. Physiother Theory Pract;37(1):158-168. [*Persian translation].

Chai, L.S., Siop, S., Putit, Z., Lim, L., Gunggu, A, & Tie S.F. (2020). Translation, adaptation and validation of the Malay version of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale. J Nurs Res;28(1):e64.

Coskun, O.K., Yagci, I., Gocmen, S., & Sagdic, B.E. (2019). Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of “cardiac rehabilitation barriers scale”. Gulhane Med J; 61:59-63.

Servio, T., Britto, R.R., de Melo Ghisi, G.L., da Silva, L.P. Silva, L.D.N., Lima, M.M.O., Pereira, D.A.G. & Grace, S.L. (2019). Barriers to cardiac rehabilitation delivery in a low-resource setting from the perspective of healthcare administrators, rehabilitation providers, and cardiac patients. BMC Health Serv Res; 19(1):615.

Winnige, P., Batalik, L., Filakova, K., Hnatiak, J., Dosbaba, F., & Grace, S.L. (2020). Translation and validation of the cardiac rehabilitation barriers scale in the Czech Republic (CRBS-CZE): Protocol to determine the key barriers in East-Central Europe. . Medicine;99(11):e19546.

Ghanbari-Firoozabadi, M., Mirzaei, M., Nasab, M.V., Grace, S.L., Okati-Aliabad, H., Madadizadeh, F., Kadras, H., Amrolahi, N., Entezari, M., & Sadrbafghi, S.M. (2020). Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation of the Persian version of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS-P). BMJ Open;10(6):e034552.

Cascino, T.M., Ashur, C., Richardson, C.R., Jackson, E.A., McLaughlin, V.V. (2020).  Impact of patient characteristics and perceived barriers on referral to exercise rehabilitation among patients with pulmonary hypertension in the United States. Pulm Circ;10(4): 2045894020974926.

Singh, S.K., Abdullah, K.L., Abidin, I.Z., Yahya, A., & Suhaimi, A. (2020). Perceived barriers among cardiac patients towards cardiac rehabilitation programme: A preliminary study. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences;16(5). eISSN 2636-9346.

Nambiar, V., Rodrigues, D., Grace, S.L., & Pitambare, M. (2020). Evidence-based translation of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale to Kannada (CRBS-Ka). Journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology;28(2):89.

Jacome Hortua, A.M., Angarita-Fonseca, A., Villamizar Jaimes, C.J., Martinez Marin, R.D.P., Dutra de Souza, H.C., de Paula Facioli, T., & Sanchez-Delgado, J.C. (2021). Reliability of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale in the Colombian population. Int J Environ Res Public Health;18(8):4351. [spanish].

Liu, X., Fowokan, A., Grace, S.L., Ding, B., Meng, S., Chen, X., Xia, Y.H., & Zhang, Y.Q. (2021). Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation of the Chinese/Mandarin Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS-C/M). Rehabilitation Research & Practice:5511426.

da Cruz, M.M.A., Ricci-Vitor, A.L., Borges, G.L.B., da Silva, P.F., Turri-Silva, N., Takahashi, C., Grace, S.L. & Vanderlei, L.C.M. (2021). A randomized controlled crossover trial of virtual reality in maintenance cardiac rehabilitation in a low-resource setting: impact on adherence, motivation and engagement. Physical Therapy;101:1-10. May.

Winnige, P., Katerina F., Jakub, H., Dosbaba, F., Bocek, O., Pepera, G., Papathanasiou, J., Batalik, L., & Grace, S.L. (2021). Validity and reliability of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale in the Czech Republic (CRBS-CZE): Determination of key barriers in East-Central Europe. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health;18:13113.

Foster, E.J., Munoz, S-A., Crabtree, D., Leslie, S.J., & Gorely, T. (2021). Barriers and facilitators to participating in cardiac rehabilitation and physical activity in a remote and rural population: A cross-sectional survey. Cardiology Journal; 28(5):697-706.

Borges, G.L.B., daCruz, M.M.A., Ricci-Vitor, A.L., DaSilva, P.F., Grace, S.L., & Vanderlei, L.C.M. (2022). Publicly versus privately funded cardiac rehabilitation: Access and adherence barriers. A cross-sectional study Sao Paulo Medical Journal;140(1):108-114.

Rangel-Cubillos, D.M., Vega-Silva, A.V., Corzo-Vargas, Y.F., Molano-Tordecilla, M.C., Penuela-Arevalo, Y.P., Lagos-Pena, K.M., Jacome Hortua, A.M., Villazimar-Jaimes, C.J., Grace, S.L., Dutra de Souza, H.C., Angarita-Fonseca, A., & Sanchez- Delgado, J.C (2022). Examining facilitators and barriers to cardiac rehabilitation adherence in a low-resource setting in Latin America from multiple perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health;19;1911.

Liu, X., Fule, W., & Yaqing, Z. (2022). Path analysis of influencing factors of outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program participation of patients with coronary heart disease in Shanghai. Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Medical Science);42(8):1110-1115.

Alexandre, A., Schmidt, C., Campinas, A., Gomes, C., Magalhaes, S., Preza-Fernandes, J., Torres, S., & Santos, M. (2022). Clinical Determinants and Barriers to Cardiac Rehabilitation Enrollment of Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Single-Center Study in Portugal. J. Cardiovasc Development and Disease;9(10):344.

Xia, L., Fule, W., Yaqing, Z. (2022). Investigation and related factor analysis of barriers to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart disease. Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Medical Science), 42(10):.

Liu, H., Xie, X., & Chen, Q. (2022). Barriers to hospital-based phase II cardiac rehabilitation among coronary heart disease patients in China: A mixed-methods study. BMC Nursing;21:333.

Santos, L.A., Pinheiro, D.G., et al. (2023). Analysis of barriers to public and private cardiac rehabilitation programs in patients with low and high adherence. Braz J Cardiovasc Surg.

Stewart, C., Ghisi, G.L.M, Davis, E.. & Grace, S.L. (2023). Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS). In Krageloh, C.U., Medvedev, O.N., & Alyami, M. (Eds.) International Handbook of Behavioral Health Assessment.

deCarvalho, A.C.S.M., Groehs, R.V., Pereira, C., Soares, V.L., Mota, T.P., Grace, S.L., & deMatos, L.D.J. Supervised exercise barriers and readmission in patients with heart failure in a low-resource setting. Pre-print.

Firoozabadi, M.G., Mirzaei, M., Grace, S.L., Nasab, M.V., Dehghani-Tafti, M., Sadeghi, A., Asadi, Z., Basirinezhad, M.H. Sex differences in cardiac rehabilitation barriers among non-enrollees in the context of low gender equality. Pre-print.

Antoniou, V., Pasias, K., Loukidis, N., Kalliopi, E-K., Panagiotakos, D.B., Grace, S.L. & Pepera, G. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric validation of the Greek version of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS-GR): What are the barriers in Southeast Europe? Under review.

Aljehani, R., Grace, S.L., Aburub, A., Turk-Adawi, K., & Ghisi, G.L.M. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric validation of the Arabic version of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS-A), with strategies to mitigate barriers. In preparation.

CRBS Presentations:

PowerPoint Presentation of the CRBS

Shanmugasegaram, S.*, Stewart, D.E., Anand, S., Chessex, C., Reid, R., Oh, P., & Grace, S.L. (2010). Development of the French version of the cardiac rehabilitation barriers scale. Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation 20th Annual Meeting and Symposium. Montreal, QC. October. JCRP, 30(5), 354.

Midence, L.*, Oh, P., & Grace, S.L. (2015). Women's cardiac rehabilitation barriers by program model: A randomized controlled trial. Canadian Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation Annual Symposium. Toronto, ON. October. JCRP; 35(5):367-375.

Ghisi, G.L.M.*, Pencar, T., Lafontant, M.P., Motamedi, N., & Grace, S.L .(2014). Translation and pilot testing of the Spanish Version of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS). Canadian Association of Health Services and Policy Research (CAHSPR) Annual Conference. Toronto, ON. May.

Shanmugasegaram, S.*, Tang, C.*, Tan, Y., Chow, C.-M., Oh, P., Tomlinson, G. A., Cho, N., & Grace, S. L. (2013). A comparison of cardiac rehabilitation barriers in North American and Chinese-Canadian outpatients. Toronto Rehabilitation Institute's 9th Annual Research Day. Toronto, ON. November.

Da Costa, C. H.V., da Silva, W.N., de Jesus, A. K. B., Gioacomassi, I. W. S., Batista, F.A., & Rocha, A.R.M. (2016). Crencas sobre barreiras para mobolzacao precoce em pacientes criticios - survey nacional. Congresso Brasilerio de Fisioterapia Cardiovascular / XVIII Simposio Internacional. Belo Horizonte, Brazil. June. ASSOBRAFIR Ciencia; Vol 7, Suppl 1. Pp.55-56. ISSN: 2177-9333.

Vargas, Y.F.C., Cubillos, D.M.R., Silva, A.V.V., Hortua, A.M.J., Marin, R.dP.M., Jaiems, J.V., Grace, S.L., & Sanchez Delgado, J.C. (2020). Barreras que influyen en la participacion y adherencia a los programas de rehabilitacion cardiaca de la cuidad de Bucaramanga. Congreso Colombiano de Cardiologica y Cirugia Cardiovascular / Congreso SISAC. Medellin, Colombia. March. Revista Colombiana de Cardiologia; 27(3):21. [spanish].

CRBS Adaptations:

Marzolini, S., Balitsky, A., Jagroop, D., Corbett, D., Brooks, D., Grace, S.L., Lawrence, D., & Oh, P.I. (2016). Factors affecting attendance at an adapted cardiac rehabilitation exercise program for individuals with mobility deficits post-stroke. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases;25(1):87-94.

Desveaux, L., Goldstein, R., Mathur, S., & Brooks, D. (2016). Barriers to physical activity following rehabilitation: Perspectives of older adults with chronic disease. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity;24:223-233.

Cascino, T.M., Ashur, C., Richardson, C.R., Jackson, E.A., & McLaughlin, V.V. (2020). Impact of patient characteristics and perceived barriers on referral to exercise rehabilitation among patients with pulmonary hypertension in the United States. Pulmonary Hypertension; 10(4):1-9.